Causes of Heart Disease in Cats
The most common heart condition in cats is adult-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, caused by the enlargement or thickening of the heart.
Heart disease in cats can be either congenital or acquired:
- Congenital heart disease in cats is present at birth and can be inherited.
- Acquired heart disease, often referred to as adult-onset heart disease, occurs in middle-aged to older cats due to wear and tear on the heart. It can also result from an injury or infection.
In some cases, adult-onset heart disease develops as a secondary problem, with the primary problem originating in some other area of the body such as the thyroid gland.
Signs That Your Cat Could Have a Heart Condition
Early onset of the disease can be difficult to identify in cats. Most cats do not display any clinical signs until the disease is advanced, at which point cats tend to become more withdrawn and lethargic.
When it comes to heart disease in cats, symptoms can include one or more of the following:
- Poor appetite
- Weight loss
- Lethargy or inactivity
- Difficulty with or discontinuing exercise
- Regularly elevated heart rate
- Increased respiratory rate and effort
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Sudden hind leg paralysis
Treatments for Cats with Heart Disease
Unfortunately, there is no cure for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats and damage caused to the structure of the heart muscle are irreversible. However, in some cases where heart disease is secondary to a treatable condition, such as hyperthyroidism, the symptoms can be alleviated once the primary condition is addressed.
Your veterinarian can prescribe different types of medication to help reduce the risk of congestive heart failure in cats. These medications can help to relax the heart muscle, slow down the heart rate and decrease the workload of the heart. Diuretics are usually prescribed to reduce fluid overload.
In addition to medication, other types of treatment may be recommended by your vet including a low-sodium diet, oxygen therapy, taurine supplementation, or surgical procedures to remove excess fluid buildup from the chest cavity or abdomen.
How Heart Disease Affects Your Cat
Some cats with heart disease can develop a painful, paralyzing condition called saddle thrombus. This condition is caused when a blood clot develops in the heart and moves out of the aorta blocking blood flow to a cat's hind legs. If you notice sudden hind leg paralysis in your cat contact your vet or seek emergency care immediately.
The Prognosis for Cats With Heart Problems
Cats with structural heart disease will likely develop recurrent signs of congestive heart failure over time and require lifelong medication. In general, the average survival time after a cat has been diagnosed with congestive heart failure is 6 to 12 months.
Cats that have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure will need frequent veterinary follow-up visits and additional tests may be performed in order to monitor the cat's heart health.
Spotting The Signs of Cat Heart Disease Early
The most important thing to know when it comes to monitoring heart health in cats is that veterinarians can often identify heart disease before symptoms occur. Taking your cat for annual checkups and blood tests are highly effective at screening your pet for other diseases that can affect her heart.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.